Mune firimu inodonha "The Martian" Mark Watney, muchadenga-sainzi akasara ega paMars, pane imwe nguva anotanga kukura mbatatisi. Izvi hazvingoshandisi chete, kuti zvirarame, asi zvakare zvinomiririra - kudyara nekukohwa mbatatisi chinhu chakakosha muku "kuita kuti nyika izvipire", mukubata iyo "Red Planet" seyedu. Mune rimwe shoko, mukoloni yeMars. Handizive kana maAmerican, maChinese, kana solo Elon Musk vachadyara kukunda kwekutanga kwembatatisi, asi ndinoda kuziva nezvemujaho uyu.

Kunyangwe iwe uchida Muska kana kwete, iye zvirokwazvo anonakidza hunhu. Chinonyanya kundifadza inyaya yekuti kana aka tweeted "idya Prince Polo", yakakurumbira chiPoland chokoreti wafer yaizove imwe yemaswiti akakosha pasi rese. Uye ini handisi kuwedzeredza - iye achangobva kunyora "Use Signal" uye mutumwa akazadzwa nekuedza kunyoresa maakaundi matsva. Muchokwadi, migove yekambani ine zita rakafanana (Signal Adavance Inc.) yakangoerekana yasvetuka.

Uyu Elon Musk achangobva kuve munhu akapfuma kwazvo pasirese - achikunda Jeff Bezos mushure mekunge zvikamu zvake zveTesla zvanyora kuwedzera kwekukosha. Pa "Chwierkacz", mukupindura iyi nhau, iye akangonyora "Zvinoshamisa sei" uye "Zvakanaka, dzokera kubasa". Pamwe anga adzoka achitarisira Tesla, kana pamwe anga akatarisa SpaceX, imwe kambani yake iyo inogona kuve yekutanga kumisikidza vanhu paMars.

SpaceX inomhanyisa chirongwa chayo chekufambisa kuenda kune yechina nyika kubva kuSuva, uye inotarisirwa kuwana mukana wakakura mumakore anotevera - kutanga, muna 2024, basa risina kumisikidzwa rinofanira kuitika, uye mumakore mashoma anotevera, Earthlings yekutanga inofanira kunge ichitopfuura muvhu reMartian. Kuti upedze zvinangwa izvi zvekuda, kambani iri kungovandudza Spacehip (ngatidaidze, kuve nyore, roketi), iro mune ramangwana richava budiriro mumunda wekutakura nzvimbo.

(munyori: WikiImages, Pixabay License)

Houston… watoziva chii

Ini handidi kuomesesa rondedzero pano, asi pamwe kuyedza kwakadaro kwakasira kwekumhara murume paMars kuri kurimira zuva. Kekupedzisira vanhu pavakazofamba pane chero chinhu chekudenga - kunze kwepasi, hongu - yaive makore makumi mashanu apfuura Muna 50, Eugene Cernan naHarrison Schmitt vakafamba paMwedzi sechikamu cheApollo 1972 mishoni. Kubva ipapo - kunyarara. Uye zvakadaro Mars yakatonyanya kureba, yakaoma uye yakaoma kupukunyuka kupfuura kufambisa kune yedu chete satellite yemusikirwo.

Chokwadi, apa ndipo panoputsika nekuoma kwese - kunyangwe tekinoroji yatama kubva pamakumbo muma70, uye nhasi tave nemakomputa pamaoko edu nesimba iro Armstrong nevamwe vake vaigona kurota nezvazvo, mamishini akaomarara achiri akaoma uye mashandiro akaomarara anogona kudya mazana emabhiriyoni emadhora. Uye izvo zvichiri zvakawandisa.

Kana, pasi penzvimbo yeMwedzi kana Mars, imwe yemapurefu yakawana mafuta, kana imwe sosi yakakosheswa paPasi, uye zvingave zvinobatsira kuibvisa, ipapo panogona kunge paine nzvimbo yeAmerica, kana mabheseni mazhinji emarudzi akasiyana siyana. Ini ndinofungidzira kuti maAmerican akadaro vanoshandisa mari yakawanda kupfuura bhajeti regore renyika dzenyika, saka havafunge kwenguva yakareba zvakakwana. Parizvino, zvakadaro, nzvimbo dzinopukunyuka hadzizobhadhara zvirinyore - dzinozotiunzira zvakanyanya zvisingawanzo kuratidzwa, masampuli edombo neruzivo, asi ichave kukunda kunodhura kwehupenyu hwedu. Zvakanaka, uye mabhajeti paPasi pachawo anofanira kusimbiswa ...

Apa ndipo panotorwa nhanho dzakazvimirira senge SpaceX, yakatsaurirwa kutsvaga nzvimbo. Kambani yakadaro haifanire kunetseka kuti ikapedza bhajeti yayo yese pachinangwa ichi, ichashaiwa zvikoro kana mauto, uye muArkansas mugwagwa mukuru wehurumende uchangoerekana watsemuka nepakati. Izvo hazvina kunyanya kutsamira pasarudzo dzemapurezidhendi akateedzana, avo vanotya kuti chirongwa chakakundikana chemuchadenga chinoita kuti mabhawa ekutsigira azvibate kunge meteoroid - vachatanga kuwira pamwero unotyisa. Naizvozvo, inonakidza yekuwedzera nyaya yekukunda nzvimbo, ichikura munzira dzakatosiyana.

Nenzira, iyi inzvimbo hombe yekudyara iyo, pamwe mumakumi mashoma emakore anotevera, ichabhadhara, semuenzaniso, nekuda kwemari iyo vakapfuma vePasi vachada kubhadhara nzvimbo yekushanya. Ukaisa parutivi - pamwe - mamirioni mashoma emadhora, imwe mari inotenderera, haungatombobhururuka padyo nemutumbi wedenga here? Chaizvoizvo.

Atemisi, hanzvadzi yaApollo

Mushure mezvose, kunyangwe paine matambudziko akasiyana siyana andataura, NASA pachayo inewo zvirongwa zvekushuvira zvemakore anouya, ichashandisa peni (kana senti) uye ichatora danho - munhu angazoda kutaura pakupedzisira - pane imwe ndege yemurume inomhanya. Muna 2024, vanhu vanofanirwa kuoneka pa "Silver Globe" zvakare. Uyezve, maAmerican anoda kutora danho rakafanana neSoviet uye yekutanga ndege yaValentina Tereshkova - vanoda mukadzi wekutanga kufamba paMwedzi nekukurumidza.

Chirongwa chemuchadenga chavari kuita chinofanira kutanga munguva pfupi, kupera kwegore rino. Ichatanga nemamishinari asina kurongwa, uye ichatumidzwa kuti Atemisi, chinova chakakosha nekuti Atemisi (kana Atemisi) ihanzvadzi yengano yamwari Apollo. Huye, raive ani zita reimwe yeanonyanya kuzivikanwa mapurogiramu akatungamira kumhara kwevanhu pamwedzi? Chaizvoizvo.

Nenzira, ini ndinonyatsoda iyi tsika yekutumidza mazita zvinhu zvakasiyana siyana nezviitiko muchadenga zvinoenderana nekiyi yenyaya, inonzwisisika (nekuti zvakajairika) kune iro rese chiLatin budiriro. Zvichida, zvakadaro, munguva pfupi inotevera pachava ne "kurwa kwevamwari" munzvimbo dzeplanetary. MaChinese, achangobudirira kupedza chimwe chikamu chechirongwa cheChang'e, zvakare vane kuravira kwekutsvaga nzvimbo - iyo probe ine masampuli kubva kuMwedzi wakadzokera kuNyika Iri zita rinenge rakatonyanya kudarika - muchiChinese ngano zvinoreva mwarikadzi weMwedzi, uye kwatiri, vanhu vekuMadokero zvakanzwisisika, zvinoenderana neshoko rekuti "Chinja".

Muchokwadi, shanduko huru yepasi rose ichaitika pamberi pedu, izvo zvingangoda mumwe makwikwi makuru, imwe "hondo inotonhora" muchadenga. Chii chakaendesa Apollo kana Tereshkova zvirongwa zvekubhururuka zvaive zvisiri roketi chete, asi pamusoro pezvose (uye ini handina kuzvitaura kusvika zvino) pfungwa yemakwikwi uye hukuru hukuru.

Izvi zvinonzi iyo nhangemutange yemuchadenga pamusoro pemakore "yakadzinga" iyo US neUSSR kumabasa matsva uye matsva, kugadzira matekinoroji akaomarara uye akaomarara. Yakavakawo pfungwa yekuchengeteka, nekuti Washington yaitya kutongwa nemaSoviet probes mudenga, uye kutya kwakafanana kwakaitika muMoscow. Ngatirangarirei kuti atova mukutanga kwema50 nema60, masimba ese ari maviri akatanga kutamba mukuparadza mabhomba enyukireya akatakurwa nemaroketi kuenda kumatunhu akakwirira.

Unyanzvi humiriri hweMukana rover (aut. NASA / JPL / Cornell University, Maas Digital LLC, yeruzhinji dunhu).

Red Planet uye Red China?

MaChinese pasina mubvunzo ane vavariro nhasi dzekuve mutongi wepasi rose, ane simba kwazvo pamasimba. Vachafunga kutora raimbove basa reUSSR uye isu tichasangana neimwe nzvimbo infusion? Mune maonero angu, izvi ndizvo zvazvichave zvakaita, uye nekuwedzera, iyo nhangemutange yemuchadenga ichasanganisira - pachinyakare - maRussia, nhengo dzeEuropean Space Agency nemaIndia. Vese vachatevera zvido zvavo zvekunze kwenyika padiki uye padiki padiki. Parizvino, hapana kusawirirana kukuru mumunda wezveruzhinji zvirongwa - zvakavanzika zvirongwa, nekuti yakadaro NASA (yehurumende agency) inonyatsoshanda pamwe nekuzadzisa, semuenzaniso, ne SpaceX, ichiraira kambani kuita dzakasiyana siyana tsvagiridzo, mapurojekiti uye bvunzo. Zvichida, zvakadaro, pachave nekukonana kwekufarira mune ramangwana, nekuti Musk pachake anotenda kuti anokwanisa makoloni paMars anofanira kuzvimiririra pamutemo wePasi uye anofanirwa kuumba bato rezvematongerwo enyika rakaparadzana, rakasununguka nenyika dziri pa "Blue Planet". Zvakaoma kutarisira kuti masimba makuru achatora mhinduro yakadaro, zvechokwadi kuti zvichave zvichikwanisika kudzokorora mamiriro akadaro ehumambo seaya anozivikanwa mune Antarctica - kondinendi iyi iri de iure i of facto isina kupatsanurwa pakati pedzimwe nyika, kunyange hazvo vashoma vaine nzvimbo dzenharaunda.

Nekudaro, tisati tapesana pamusoro (zvisinganzwisisike) Pasi paMars, isu tichine mutambo wakareba uye unonetesa wevamwari vanozotungamira (kana zvikazoitika kuti zvichakwanisika) kugadzirisa pasi. Zvinorevei izvo? Zvakangoita kuti mamiriro ehupenyu paMars haana hushamwari sesu uye inofanirwa kuumbwa mukufanana kwedu, semuenzaniso nekuchinja kumanikidza kwemhepo kana kutungamira pakuonekwa kwenzvimbo dzekusingaperi dzemvura. Ichi chinetso chatisingakwanise kugadzirisa nehunyanzvi hwazvino, inyaya yekufungidzira. Kunyangwe mbatatisi ine nzira refu yekufamba. Tichaona zvatingaite budiriro yedu isati yawa, tichisiya imwe yevakafa nzira paMilky Way, iyo - zvinoenderana neongororo dzichangoburwa dzakatsanangurwa pane manhamba - panogona kuve nezvakawanda.

Ndiri kungoda chinhu chimwe chete. Kana tikambozvimisikidza paMars, ndinovimba tichawana zvisaririra zveMukana rover, iyo yakashinga kuita basa rayo kweanopfuura makore gumi nemashanu, ndokuzonyangarika pasi pemamiriro ezvinhu anoshamisa mudutu rejecha. Zvichida nzvimbo yekufa kwake kwemagetsi ichazove chiyeuchidzo chikuru chekuti "Red Planet" yakatanga kuva sei, nhanho nhanho, imba yedu inotevera?

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